Indigenous Resources Guide

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This Guide identifies records that relate to Indigenous peoples and communities of Alberta currently in the holdings of the Provincial Archives. These records include those created by both government departments and private individuals and organizations.

To help in your research, records often appear under more than one subject. Under each subject will be a link to a page in our database containing all records within that subject. Use this Guide in combination with keyword or subject searches of the database for access to all relevant archival material. To keyword search within this page, press Ctrl/Command + F and type in what you are searching for.

We have aimed to compile an exhaustive list of relevant material. Please note that this is an ongoing project and new descriptions will occasionally be added.

If you have questions about how to use this Guide or accessing the records, please contact the Sandra Thomson Reading Room.


Education
These records contain interviews with students and teachers, Alberta Government records and correspondence, and records created by and in collaboration with First Nations, among several other sources. These records include some references to residential schools, but largely focus on other educational records, programs, and reports.

Click here to access these records
Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Education”


Employment, Business, and Community Development
These records generally document how Indigenous people have been represented and impacted in employment and economic development in Alberta. This includes topics such as Indian agent correspondence, mining, agriculture and farming, Métis and First Nation relocations, statistics and legislation, resource management, government department statistics, career centres, and Indigenous cooperatives bylaws and other material.

Click here to access these records
Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Employment”


Indigenous Languages Records
Records are fully or partially in Indigenous languages, regardless of content or specific subject matter, including textual material and audiovisual records.

Click here to access these records
Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Languages”


Filmmaking, Audio, and Creative Records
Records consist of video, audio, and other creative records, as well as related textual records. The records are documentaries, oral histories, and fictional stories, among others, and cover a wide variety of topics, including arts, culture, and heritage. See the records of specific filmmakers to examine the wide and deep bodies of work held at the PAA.

Click here to access these records
Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Creative”


Healthcare
These include hospital records, patient files, medical program records and correspondence, and fee schedules. The majority of these records were created by the provincial government. Healthcare facilities include the Blood Indian Hospital, Baker Memorial Sanitarium, Standoff Hospital, Bonnyville Indian-Métis Rehabilitation Centre, Standoff Hospital, Aberhart Memorial Sanatorium, and the Camsell Hospital.

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Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Healthcare”


Housing, Transportation, and Infrastructure
Records document policies, projects, and correspondence in or about Indigenous reserves and communities. The records include references to utilities, Planning Services, housing and construction applications, needs assessments, existing housing and social conditions, and road maintenance and construction. Many of the records reference specific communities.

Click here to access these records
Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Infrastructure”


Law and the Criminal Justice System
Records are related to Indigenous peoples and courts, laws, policing, prisons, and other criminal justice-related content. Most come from provincial government sources; other records are from community members or larger Indigenous organizations, with examples such as treatment programs and correspondence on the White Paper (a 1969 document proposing the abolishing of all previous legal documents in Canada making up Canadian Indigenous laws).

Click here to access these records
Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Law”


Maps, Land Use, and Population Statistics
Records include maps, population statistics, and research concerning Indigenous people and nations, with a focus on those records that concern Alberta or multiple Treaty areas as a whole. For maps and records that are more specific to individual Treaties and communities, refer to those Treaties throughout this Guide.

Click here to access these records
Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Stats”


Social Services and Children’s Affairs
Records relate to programs and decision-making in governments and organizations on Indigenous children. A major portion of these records concern adoption, foster care, and child welfare.

Click here to access these records
Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Social Services”


Photography
Records depict Indigenous people and their lives, communities, and families. The records included in this subject are mostly composed of larger collections not specific to a Treaty Territory, but also include some smaller photographic collections or records that do not currently have a clear Treaty connection. Please also see specific school and Treaty territory subjects and for other photos.

Click here to access these records
Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Photography”


Histories and Storytelling from Indigenous people
Records contain histories and storytelling from Indigenous people and communities. Included are written and recorded biographies and recollections, stories and storytelling, and correspondence, among other records. Please see the Filmmaking, Audio, and Creative Content subject for related records.

Click here to access these records
Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Histories”


Reports and Studies about and on Indigenous people
Records include reports, studies, and histories about Indigenous people and communities. The sources of these records include the provincial government, researchers, and documents generated as part of the creation of documentary films, among others. Please see the Filmmaking, Audio, and Creative Content subject for related records.

Click here to access these records
Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Reports”


Treaty 6
Records specific to the geographical area of this Treaty Territory are included in this subject. These records will be varied, from personal diaries and audio recordings to research manuscripts and correspondence with Government agents. The subject is further subdivided into several sub-sections for more targeted access. Records that are more relevant to multiple Treaty territories (as opposed to solely or mostly relevant to Treaty 6) can be found in the subjects above that better reflect their content.

Click here to access all Treaty 6 records
Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Treaty 6”

  1. Treaty 6: Photographs
  2. Treaty 6: Maps
  3. Treaty 6: Histories and Governance


Treaty 7
Records specific to the geographical area of this Treaty Territory are included in this subject. These records will be varied, from personal diaries and audio recordings to research manuscripts and correspondence with Government agents. This subject is further subdivided into several sub-sections for more targeted access. Records that are more relevant to multiple Treaty territories (as opposed to solely or mostly relevant to Treaty 7) can be found in the subjects above that better reflect their content.

Click here to access all Treaty 7 records
Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Treaty 7”

  1. Treaty 7: Photographs
  2. Treaty 7: Maps
  3. Treaty 7: Histories and Governance


Treaty 8
Records specific to the geographical area of this Treaty Territory are included in this subject. These records will be varied, from personal diaries and audio recordings to research manuscripts and correspondence with Government agents. This subject is further subdivided into several sub-sections for more targeted access. Records that are more relevant to multiple Treaty territories (as opposed to solely or mostly relevant to Treaty 8) can be found in the subjects above that better reflect their content.

Click here to access all Treaty 8 records
Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Treaty 8”

  1. Treaty 8: Photographs
  2. Treaty 8: Maps
  3. Treaty 8: Histories and Governance


Métis Resources
This subject collects the records related to Métis people, life, and communities held at the PAA. Records are wide ranging, from interview audio recordings and genealogical charts to conference records and legislation correspondence. The subject is further subdivided into several sub-sections for more targeted access.

Click here to access all Métis Resources
Or, search using the following term: “IRG_Métis”

  1. Métis Resources: Governance, Children, and Education
  2. Métis Resources: Legislation, Settlements, and Scrip
  3. Métis Resources: Histories
  4. Métis Resources: Photographs and Maps


Western Canada Residential, Day, and Boarding Schools

The files relating to Day and Residential schools are organized alphabetically, by the name of school. Records are grouped together both by location and by institution. If the title of the school begins with "St.," use the first word of the school name after "St." For example, find St. Bruno's under "B."

Clicking on one of the school names below will bring you to a prepared search for files relating to that school. Remember to also search using alternate school names and geographic locations, which are noted below each school in this list.

Schools, A-B
  • Alexander Day School
    • also: Rivière-Qui-Barre, Michel, and Villeneuve Day Schools
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1948-1981
    • Rivière Qui Barre, Michel Reserve, Villeneuve
  • Assumption Residential School
    • also: Hay Lakes Residential School, Assumption Day School, Habay Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1951-1970
    • Dene Tha’ Hay Lake Reserve
  • Atikameg Schools (St. Andrew's and St. Peter's Residential Schools)
    • also: St. Benedict, Sovereign, Whitefish Lake, and St. Peter's Day Schools
    • Roman Catholic and Anglican operated schools, 1895-1962
    • Atikameg
  • St. Augustine Residential School
    • also: Shaftesbury Residential School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1900-1907
    • Peace River, Smokey River, Shaftesbury
  • St. Barnabas Residential School
    • also: Sarcee Day School, Bull Head School
    • Anglican, Methodist (United), and Mennonite operated, 1899-1961
    • T’suu Tina, Sarcee Reserve
  • Beauval Residential School
    • also: St. Bruno’s Boarding School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1897 -1995
    • Ile à la Crosse, Beauval, Saskatchewan
  • Big Horn Day School
    • also: Ta Otha Day School
    • Mennonite (United) operated, 1949-1989
    • Big Horn Reserve, Rocky Mountain House
  • Blue Quills Residential Schools
    • (Lac La Biche, Saddle Lake, and St. Paul)
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1862-1986
    • Lac la Biche, Saddle Lake, & St. Paul
  • Boyer River Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1955-1963
    • Rocky Lane
  • Breynat Hall
    • also: Fort Smith Hostel, Joseph Burr Tyrell School, Grandin College
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1957-1985
    • Fort Smith, Northwest Territories
  • Brocket Schools
    • also: St. Cyprian, Brocket, and Sacred Heart Residential Schools, Queen Victoria's Jubilee Home, Peigan Day School
    • Roman Catholic and Anglican operated schools, 1887-1986
    • Brocket, Peigan Reserve

Schools, C-F
  • Cardston Residential Schools (St. Mary's and St. Paul's Residential Schools)
    • also: Immaculate Conception and Blood Residential Schools, Blood and Glenwood Day Schools, Standoff Elementary
    • Roman Catholic and Anglican operated schools, 1889-1988
    • Blood Reserve, Cardston, Glenwood, Levern
  • Cold Lake Day School
    • LeGoff Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1916-1933, 1953-1997
    • Beaver Crossing, Cold Lake Reserve
  • Crowfoot Residential School
    • also: St. Joseph's Residential School, St. Trinité Residential School, Blackfoot Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1900-1968
    • Cluny, Blackfoot Crossing
  • Driftpile Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1955-1964
    • Faust, Driftpile Reserve
  • Duck Lake Residential School
    • also: St. Michael's Day School, Duck Lake Block
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1894–1996
    • Duck Lake, Saskatchewan
  • Eden Valley Day School
    • United and Anglican operated, 1949-1990
    • Eden Valley Reserve
  • Ermineskin Residential School
    • also: Hobbema, Ermineskin, Montana, Samson, and Louis Bull Day Schools
    • Roman Catholic, United, and Baptist operated schools, 1894-1991
    • Maskwacis and Ermineskin, Montana, Samson, Louis Bull Reserves
  • St. Eugene's Residential School
    • also: Kootenay Residential School, Cranbrook Residential School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1890-1970
    • Cranbrook, British Columbia
  • Fort McKay Day School
    • also: Mackay Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1949-1969
    • Fort McKay, near Fort McMurray
  • Fort Vermilion Residential School
    • also: St. Henry's Residential School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1900-1968
    • Vermilion
  • Fox Lake Day School
    • also: Fox Lake Little Flower Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1957-1964
    • Fox Lake Reserve, Vermilion Agency
  • Frog Lake Day School
    • also: Napayo Day School, Napewow
    • Roman Catholic and Anglican operated schools, 1914-1985
    • Frog Lake, Napayo

Schools, G-L
  • Gooderham Day School
    • also: Duffield Day School, Paul's Day School, Wabamum Day School
    • United operated, 1951-1994
    • Wabamum, Duffield
  • Grollier Hall
    • also: Notre-Dame Residence, Inuvik, Samuel Hearne, and Aklavik - East 3 Day Schools
    • Roman Catholic and Anglican operated schools, 1956-1997
    • Inuvik, Northwest Territories
  • Hay River Boarding School
    • also: All Saints Residential School, Aklavik School, Immaculate Conception School, Princess Alexandra Day School
    • Anglican operated, 1895-1968
    • Hay River, Aklavik, Northwest Territories
  • Holy Angels Residential School
    • also: Fort Chipewyan Residential School, Bishop Piché School, École des Saints-Anges
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1874-1985
    • Fort Chipewyan
  • Janvier Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1950-1963
    • Janvier Reserve
  • St. John’s Residential School
    • also: Wabasca (Wapuskaw), St. Martin's, and Desmarais Residential School
    • Anglican and Roman Catholic operated schools, 1895-1973
    • Bigstone Cree Nation Wabasca Reserve, Desmarais
  • St. Joseph's Residential School
    • also: Dunbow Industrial School, High River Day School, Dunbow Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1884-1922
    • High River
  • St. Joseph’s Mission School
    • also: Fort Resolution School, Rocher River Day School, Peter Pond Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1903 -1969
    • Fort Resolution, Northwest Territories
  • Kamloops Industrial School
    • also: St. Louis Residential School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1890 -1978
    • Kamloops, British Columbia
  • Lebret School
    • also: Qu’Appelle, St. Paul’s, Whitecalf
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1884 -1998
    • Lebret, Saskatchewan
  • Lejac School
    • also: Stuart Lake School, Fraser Lake School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1917 -1976
    • Fraser Lake, British Columbia
  • Lesser Slave Lake Schools (Joussard, Grouard, and St. Peter's)
    • also: St. Bruno's Residential School, Lesser Slave Lake Residential School, St. Bernard's Residential School
    • Roman Catholic and Anglican operated schools, 1895-1969
    • Lesser Slave Lake
  • Long Lake Day School
    • also: Kehewin Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1916-1972
    • Kehewin Reserve
  • Lubicon Lake Mission School
    • also: Lubicon Lake Mission, Little Buffalo Mission
    • 1954-[19--]
    • Little Buffalo

Schools, M-R
  • Marieval Residential School
    • also: Cowessess Residential School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1898 -1997
    • Marieval Reserve, Grayson, Saskatchewan
  • St. Mary's Boarding School
    • also: Mission Residential School, Chehalis Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1867 -1984
    • Fraser Valley, Mission, Harrison Mills, British Columbia
  • McDougall Residential School and Orphanage
    • also: Morley McDougall Residential School, Stony Residential School, David Bearspaw Day School
    • Methodist (United) operated, 1880-1986
    • Morley Reserve
  • Muscowequan Residential School
    • also: Touchwood Residential School, Muscowequan Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1889-1997
    • Muscowequan Reserve, Lestock, Green Lake, Saskatchewan
  • Nordegg River Day School
    • also: Sunchild Cree Day School, Henry Stelfox Day School
    • Mennonite (United) operated, 1956-1973
    • Rocky Mountain House, Sunchild Cree Reserve
  • Old Sun Boarding School
    • also: Chief Old Sun Residential School, White Eagle Day School, Gleichen Day School
    • Anglican operated, 1886-1989
    • Gleichen, Blackfoot Reserve
  • Onion Lake Schools
    • also: St. Anthony's Residential School, Chief Taylor Day School, Onion lake Central Day School
    • Roman Catholic, Anglican, and non-denominational schools, 1894–1981
    • Seekaskootch Reserve, Onion Lake, Saskatchewan
  • Poundmaker Residential School
    • also: Red Deer Industrial School, Edmonton Industrial School
    • Anglican and Methodist (United) operated, 1893-1960
    • Red Deer, Edmonton
  • Prince Albert Residential School
    • also: St. Patrick Orphanage
    • Anglican operated, 1894 -1997
    • Prince Albert, Saskatchewan

Schools, S-Z
  • Sacred Heart Residential School
    • also: Providence Mission School, Elizabeth Ward Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1906-1969
    • Fort Providence, Northwest Territories
  • Saddle Lake Day Schools
    • also: R.B. Steinhauer, Heart Lake, Beaver Lake, Goodfish Lake, and Pakan Day Schools
    • Roman Catholic and Methodist (United) operated schools, 1881-1924, 1949-1981
    • Pakan, Saddle Lake and Goodfish Lake Reserves
  • Stony Plain Day School
    • also: Winterburn Day School, Enoch Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1948-1975
    • Stony Plain Reserve, Enoch
  • Sturgeon Lake Residential School
    • also: St. François Xavier Boarding School, Namew Day School
    • Roman Catholic and Mennonite (United) operated schools, 1959-1970
    • Calais
  • Sturgeon Landing School
    • also: Guy Hill School, Clearwater School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1926-1979
    • Sturgeon landing, Saskatchewan and Clearwater, Manitoba
  • Thunderchild Residential School
    • also: St. Henri Residential School, Delmas School
    • Roman Catholic operated schools, 1901-1948
    • Delmas, Saskatchewan
  • Trout Lake Day School
    • also: Ptarmigan Point and Trout Rock Seasonal School, Kateri Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1958-1959
    • Trout Lake, Ptarmigan Point, NWT
  • Upper Hay River Day School
    • also: Meander River Day School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1950-1971
    • Meander River
  • Youville Residential School
    • also: St. Albert Residential School, Lac Ste. Anne Mission School
    • Roman Catholic operated, 1863-1948
    • St. Albert Mission, Mission Hill, Lac Ste. Anne Mission

We hold very few files from Day Schools and schools outside Alberta, but Library and Archives Canada is an excellent place to continue your research. To consult their online collections, visit their collection search page. You can learn more about how to search for Residential School records on their help page.


Indigenous Nations and Communities in Alberta
The files relating to specific First Nations, Métis settlements, and several shared communities can be found through the links below. This is not an exhaustive list and only represents those nations and communities that have records identified so far.

You can also search for all of these nations and communities through place access points, or through an advanced search of the holdings.

Nations and Communities, A-F

Alexander First Nation, also known as Kipohtakaw.
Prior to the band’s establishment in 1882, members lived near Lac la Nonne. The Nation holds the reserves Alexander (No. 134), Alexander (No. 134A), and Alexander (No. 134B). It takes its name from Chief Katstaweskum, whose baptismal name was Alexandre. The Nation is a member of the Yellowhead Tribal Council along with the Alexis Nakota Sioux, O’Chiese, and Sunchild First Nations.

Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation
Alexis Reserve (No. 133) was surveyed in 1880. In 1995, Alexis' Cardinal River (No. 234), Elk River (No. 233), and Whitecourt (No. 232) reserves were established through Treaty Land Entitlement. The Nation is a member of the Yellowhead Tribal Council along with the Alexander, O’Chiese, and Sunchild First Nations.

Beaver Lake Cree Nation
Beaver Lake Cree Nation signed Treaty No. 6 in 1876. A reserve was established in 1911, and the Nation now holds Beaver Lake (No. 131) and shares Blue Quills Reserve with the Cold Lake, Frog Lake, Heart Lake, Kehewin, and Saddle Lake Nations. The Nation is a member of Tribal Chiefs Ventures Incorporated Council.

Cold Lake First Nations
Cold Lake First Nations holds four reserves, including Cold Lake (No. 149), Cold Lake (No. 149A), Cold Lake (No. 149B), and Cold Lake (No. 149C). It also shares the Blue Quills Reserve with the Beaver Lake, Frog Lake, Heart Lake, Kehewin, and Saddle Lake Nations. The Nation is a member of the Tribal Chiefs Ventures Incorporated Council.

Enoch Cree Nation, also known as Maskêkosihk (people of the land of medicine).
Enoch Cree Nation holds two reserves, Enoch Cree Nation (No. 135) and Enoch Cree Nation (No. 135A). The reserves were first known as Stony Plain and Winterburn reservations. The Nation was first known as the “Lapotac Band,” and later as “Tommy’s Band.” In 1883, it was renamed Enoch Cree Nation.

Ermineskin Cree Nation
Ermineskin Cree Nation holds two reserves, Ermineskin (No. 138) and Pigeon Lake (No. 138A). It is one of the four Nations – and five reserves – that make up the community of Maskwacis and also, a member of the Maskwacis Cree Tribal Council.

Frog Lake First Nation
Frog Lake First Nation holds two reserves, including Puskiakiwenin (No. 122) and Unipouheos (No. 121). It shares the Blue Quills Reserve with the Beaver Lake, Cold Lake, Heart Lake, Kehewin, and Saddle Lake Nations. The Nation is a member of the Tribal Chiefs Ventures Incorporated Council.

Nations and Communities, G-O

Heart Lake First Nation
Heart Lake First Nation holds two reserves, including Heart Lake (No. 167) and Heart Lake (No. 167A). It shares the Blue Quills Reserve with the Beaver Lake, Cold Lake, Frog Lake, Kehewin, and Saddle Lake Nations. The Nation is a member of the Tribal Chiefs Ventures Incorporated Council.

Kainai First Nation, also known as Káínawa and the Blood Tribe.
Kainai Nation holds two reserves, Blood (No. 148) and Blood (No. 148A). The Nation is a member of the Siksikaitsitapi - Blackfoot Confederacy, which also includes the Aamskapi Piikani, Piikani Nation, and Siksika Nation. As historical records describing the Blackfoot Confederacy were often not distinguished by specific nation, Kainai First Nation records may be found among other Siksikaitsitapi Nation records.

Kehewin Cree Nation
Kehewin Cree Nation holds Kehewin (No. 123) and shares the Blue Quills Reserve with the Beaver Lake, Cold Lake, Frog Lake, Heart Lake, and Saddle Lake Nations. The Nation is a member of the Tribal Chiefs Ventures Incorporated Council.

Louis Bull Tribe
Louis Bull Tribe holds Louis Bull (No. 138B) and Pigeon Lake (No. 138A) reserves. It is one of the four Nations – and five reserves – that make up the community of Maskwacis and are a member of the Maskwacis Cree Tribal Council.

Maskwacis Community, known as Hobbema until 2014.
It consists of five communities. Samson (No. 137) and Ermineskin (No. 138) are directly incorporated into the community with services there extended to the Louis Bull (No. 138B), Montana (No. 139), and Samson (No. 137A) Reserves. All four Nations are also members of the Maskwacis Cree Tribal Council.

Montana First Nation, also known as Akamihk (across a small body of water).
Montana First Nation holds two reserves, Montana (No. 139) and Pigeon Lake (No. 138A). It is one of the four Nations – and five reserves – that make up the community of Maskwacis and are a member of the Maskwacis Cree Tribal Council.

O'Chiese First Nation
O’Chiese First Nation holds O’Chiese (No. 203) and O’Chiese Cemetery (No. 203A). The Nation is a member of the Yellowhead Tribal Council along with the Alexander, Alexis Nakota Sioux, and Sunchild First Nations.

Nations and Communities, P-Z

Papaschase First Nation
The Papaschase Band joined Treaty 6 in 1877 and received a reserve (No. 136) in 1880, in what is now south Edmonton. Facing starvation due to continual land resurveys by the federal government, most band members either took scrip through the North West Half-breed Commission, or were transferred to Enoch Cree Nation. The Nation was recognized as a member of the Assembly of First Nations in 2018 but not by the Canadian Government.

Paul First Nation
Paul First Nation holds Buck Lake (No. 133C), Wabamun (No. 133A), and Wabamun (No. 133B) reserves. The Nation is a descendent of the Nakoda, who travelled westward with the fur trade and largely settled in the foothills of Alberta. The group that became Paul First Nation chose to settle in land north-west of what is now Edmonton.

Piikani Nation, also known as the Piikani (Scabby Robe) People.
Piikani Nation, once known as the Peigan Nation, holds Peigan Timber Limit "B” and Piikani 147 reserves. The Nation is a member of the Siksikaitsitapi - Blackfoot Confederacy, which also includes the Aamskapi Piikani, Kainai Nation, and Siksika Nation. As historical records describing the Blackfoot Confederacy were often not distinguished by specific nation, Piikani Nation records may be found among other Siksikaitsitapi Nation records.

Saddle Lake Cree Nation, also known as Onihcikiskowapowin (mirage on the lake).
Saddle Lake Cree Nation holds two reserves, Saddle Lake (No. 125) and White Fish/Good Fish Lake (No. 128). It shares Blue Quills Reserve with the Beaver Lake, Cold Lake, Frog Lake, Heart Lake, and Kehewin Nations. Whitefish Lake (No. 128) Reserve is a member of the Tribal Chiefs Ventures Council.

Samson Cree Nation, also known as Nîpisîhkopâhk (at willow grove).
Samson Cree Nation holds three reserves, Pigeon Lake (No. 138A), Samson (No. 137), and Samson (No. 137A). It is one of the four Nations – and five reserves – that make up the community of Maskwacis and are a member of the Maskwacis Cree Tribal Council.

Siksika First Nation
Siksika First Nation holds the Siksika (No. 146) reserve. The Nation is a member of the Siksikaitsitapi - Blackfoot Confederacy, which also includes the Aamskapi Piikani, Kainai Nation, and Piikani Nation. As historical records describing the Blackfoot Confederacy were often not distinguished by specific nation, Siksika First Nation records may be found among other Siksikaitsitapi Nation records.

Stoney Nakoda Nations, also known as the Iyarhe Nakoda (people of the mountains).
Comprised of the Bearspaw, Chiniki, and Goodstoney First Nations. Goodstoney First Nation was previously known as Wesley First Nation. All three bands are a part of the wider Stoney Nakoda First Nation. They hold Stoney (No. 142), Stoney (No. 143), and Stoney (No. 144) at Mini Thni (previously known as Morley). They also hold Big Horn (No. 144A), Eden Valley (No. 216), and Stoney (142B).

Whitefish (Goodfish) Lake First Nation
Whitefish Lake First Nation holds Whitefish Lake (No. 128) and shares Blue Quills Reserve with the Cold Lake, Frog Lake, Heart Lake, Kehewin, and Saddle Lake Nations. Whitefish Lake governs its reserve separately from Saddle Lake Cree Nation. The Nation is a member of the Tribal Chiefs Ventures Incorporated Council.

Métis Settlements

Buffalo Lake Métis Settlement
Buffalo Lake Métis Settlement is located southwest of Lac La Biche and was first part of what was known as Beaver River Métis Colony, which is now known as Kikino. Buffalo Lake was established in 1941 as lands designated for Métis veterans of the Second World War but was not broadly settled until 1951. The settlement shares a boundary with Kikino Métis Settlement.

Elizabeth Métis Settlement
Elizabeth Métis Settlement was founded in 1939 and is near the Alberta/Saskatchewan border. It neighbours Bonnyville, Cold Lake, and Kehewin. It also shares its southern border with the Fishing Lake Métis Settlement.

Fishing Lake Métis Settlement
Fishing Lake Métis Settlement is known as “a small place for netting” due to the abundance of jumbo whitefish and it served as a historic fishing camp. Residents of the former St. Paul des Métis Settlement settled in the region. Although Fishing Lake Métis Settlement was established around 1938, they were not given their current land boundaries until 1949.

Gift Lake Métis Settlement
The settlement was founded in 1938 in Big Lakes County of north-central Alberta and shares a boundary with Peavine Metis Settlement. The site was chosen based on the community of Métis people who already lived there.

Kikino Métis Settlement
Kikino Métis Settlement is located south of Lac La Biche and was first part of what was known as Beaver River Colony, which formed due to the Métis Population Betterment Act of 1938. The settlement’s name was changed to Kikino in 1941, taking its name from the Cree word for "Our Home." The settlement shares a boundary with Buffalo Lake Métis Settlement.

Marlboro Métis Settlement
Marlboro Métis Settlement was intended to be established near Marlboro, AB. It was found to contain no land suitable for agricultural purposes and the request to form a settlement was withdrawn by 1941. It never achieved permanent status.

Peavine Métis Settlement
Peavine Métis Settlement was first known as Big Prairie Métis Settlement and is situated within Big Lakes County in northern Alberta. It shares a boundary with Gift Lake Métis Settlement and is north of High Prairie.

Wolf Lake Métis Settlement
Wolf Lake Métis Settlement was established in 1938 where Bonnyville is now. In 1940, there were 58 people living in the settlement. The Métis people in the area were forced to disperse in 1960 when the Province withdrew the settlement.



The above image depicts part of the Blackfoot winter count held in the Tom Many Guns family fonds (PR0185).